man keychain (Commandes) - re-use ssh-agent and/or gpg-agent between logins


keychain - re-use ssh-agent and/or gpg-agent between logins


keychain [ -hkQqV ] [ --clear --help --ignore-missing --noask --nocolor --nogui --nolock --quick --quiet --version ] [ --agents list ] [ --attempts num ] [ --dir dirname ] [ --host name ] [ --lockwait seconds ] [ --stop which ] [ --timeout minutes ] [ keys... ]


keychain is a manager for ssh-agent, typically run from ~/.bash_profile. It allows your shells and cron jobs to share a single ssh-agent process. By default, the ssh-agent started by keychain is long-running and will continue to run, even after you have logged out from the system. If you want to change this behavior, take a look at the --clear and --timeout options, described below.

When keychain is run, it checks for a running ssh-agent, otherwise it starts one. It saves the ssh-agent environment variables to ~/.keychain/${HOSTNAME}-sh, so that subsequent logins and non-interactive shells such as cron jobs can source the file and make passwordless ssh connections. In addition, when keychain runs, it verifies that the key files specified on the command-line are known to ssh-agent, otherwise it loads them, prompting you for a password if necessary.

Keychain also supports gpg-agent in the same ways that ssh-agent is supported. By default keychain attempts to start all available agents but will fall back to only gpg-agent or only ssh-agent if either is unavailable. You can specifically limit keychain using the --agents option.

keychain supports most UNIX-like operating systems, including Cygwin. It works with both Bourne-compatible and csh-compatible shells.


--agents list
Start the agents listed. By default keychain will build the list automatically based on the existence of ssh-agent and/or gpg-agent on the system. The list should be comma-separated, for example gpg,ssh
--attempts num
Try num times to add keys before giving up. The default is 1.
Delete all of ssh-agent's keys. Typically this is used in .bash_profile. The theory behind this is that keychain should assume that you are an intruder until proven otherwise. However, while this option increases security, it still allows your cron jobs to use your ssh keys when you're logged out.
--dir dirname
Keychain will use dirname rather than CW$HOME/.keychain
Keychain will print lines to be evaluated in the shell on stdout. It respects the SHELL environment variable to determine if Bourne shell or C shell output is expected.
--env filename
After parsing options, keychain will load additional environment settings from filename. By default, if --env is not given, then keychain will attempt to load from ~/.keychain/[hostname]-env or alternatively ~/.keychain/env. The purpose of this file is to override settings such as PATH, in case ssh is stored in a non-standard place.
-h --help
Show help that looks remarkably like this man-page.
--host name
Set alternate hostname for creation of pidfiles
Don't warn if some keys on the command-line can't be found. This is useful for situations where you have a shared .bash_profile, but your keys might not be available on every machine where keychain is run.
--inherit which
Attempt to inherit agent variables from the environment. This can be useful in a variety of circumstances, for example when ssh-agent is started by gdm. The following values are valid for which:
Inherit when a pid (e.g. SSH_AGENT_PID) is set in the environment. This disallows inheriting a forwarded agent.
Inherit when a sock (e.g. SSH_AUTH_SOCK) is set in the environment. This allows inheriting a forwarded agent.
Same as local, but only inherit if keychain isn't already providing an agent.
Same as any, but only inherit if keychain isn't already providing an agent. By default, keychain-2.5.0 and later will behave as if --inherit local-once is specified. You should specify --noinherit if you want the older behavior.
--lockwait seconds
How long to wait for the lock to become available. Defaults to 30 seconds.
This option tells keychain do everything it normally does (ensure ssh-agent is running, set up the ~/.keychain/[hostname]-{c}sh files) except that it will not prompt you to add any of the keys you specified if they haven't yet been added to ssh-agent.
Disable color hilighting for non ANSI-compatible terms.
Don't honor SSH_ASKPASS, if it is set. This will cause ssh-add to prompt on the terminal instead of using a graphical program.
Don't inherit any agent processes, overriding the default --inherit local-once
Don't attempt to use a lockfile while manipulating files, pids and keys.
-k --stop which
Kill currently running agent processes. The following values are valid for which:
Kill all agent processes and quit keychain immediately. Prior to keychain-2.5.0, this was the behavior of the bare --stop option.
Kill agent processes other than the one keychain is providing. Prior to keychain-2.5.0, keychain would do this automatically. The new behavior requires that you specify it explicitly if you want it.
Kill keychain's agent processes, leaving other agents alone.
-Q --quick
If an ssh-agent process is running then use it. Don't verify the list of keys, other than making sure it's non-empty. This option avoids locking when possible so that multiple terminals can be opened simultaneously without waiting on each other.
-q --quiet
Only print messages in case of warning, error or required interactivity.
--timeout minutes
Set a timeout in minutes on your keys. This is conveyed to ssh-agent which does the actual timing out of keys since keychain doesn't run continuously.
-V --version
Show version information.


This snippet should work in any shell to load two ssh keys and one gpg key:

    eval `keychain --eval id_rsa id_dsa 0123ABCD`

If you have trouble with that in csh:

    setenv SHELL /bin/csh
    eval `keychain --eval id_rsa id_dsa 0123ABCD`

This is equivalent for Bourne shells (including bash and zsh) but doesn't use keychain's --eval feature:

    keychain id_rsa id_dsa 0123ABCD
    [ -z "$HOSTNAME" ] && HOSTNAME=`uname -n`
    [ -f $HOME/.keychain/$HOSTNAME-sh ] && \
            . $HOME/.keychain/$HOSTNAME-sh
    [ -f $HOME/.keychain/$HOSTNAME-sh-gpg ] && \
            . $HOME/.keychain/$HOSTNAME-sh-gpg

This is equivalent for C shell (including tcsh):

    keychain id_rsa id_dsa 0123ABCD
    host=`uname -n`
    if (-f $HOME/.keychain/$host-csh) then
            source $HOME/.keychain/$host-csh
    if (-f $HOME/.keychain/$host-csh-gpg) then
            source $HOME/.keychain/$host-csh-gpg

To load keychain variables from a script (for example from cron) and abort unless id_dsa is available:

    # Load keychain variables and check for id_dsa
    [ -z "$HOSTNAME" ] && HOSTNAME=`uname -n`
    . $HOME/.keychain/$HOSTNAME-sh 2>/dev/null
    ssh-add -l 2>/dev/null | grep -q id_dsa || exit 1



Keychain is maintained by Aron Griffis <>. If you need to report a bug or request an enhancement, please do so at <> and assign to

Keychain was originally written by Daniel Robbins <>, who has also written a series of three articles about it. The articles can be found starting at <>